Temptation Tends to Corrupt Cognitive Processes
Sock boots size 4 superflys on sale many people have difficultyresisting superflys on sale temptation, be it dietary, alcoholic or sexual. New research suggests sock boots size 4 one solution may involve doing less rather than more. That is, don’t stop and think about your options, as thinking may not help.
Northwestern University researchers Drs. Loran Nordgren and Eileen Chou set out to make sense of two contradictory bodies of literature.
One theory is that the presence of temptation may cause changes in rational thought processes in ways that promote impulsive behavior, said Nordgren. Another shows that “temptation engages protective [thought] processes that promote selfcontrol. You show a dieter a piece of cake, and an early sock boots size 4 thought is ‘I’m dieting’ and ‘no thanks.'”
Nordgren believes the descriptions superflys on sale are too simplistic as they leave out a crucial factor: the interaction superflys on sale between temptation and pressing individual needs (“visceral state”) hunger, thirst, sexual desire, satiation or craving which “dictates whether the same cognitive processes will be oriented toward impulsive behavior or selfcontrol. study this interaction, researchers looked at different cognitive mechanisms to see how temptation affected them.
In one experiment, 49 male students in committed relationships watched either an erotic film, putting them in an aroused (“hot” visceral) state; or a filmed fashion show, creating a “cool” state.
The experimenters then showed them images of attractive women and observed how long they gazed at them.
A week later, the procedure was the same, but the men were told the women were incoming studentsthus, available. This time, the aroused men gazed longer. More temptation promoted less fidelity. The coolstate men did the opposite.
In a second study, some smokers out of a group of 53 were instructed to smoke directly before the experiment, while the rest abstained for three hours. Then both the satiated and craving groups rated the pleasure of smoking, showing how much they valued cigarettes.
Phase two, same conditions, same questionand a choice: Delay smoking for 40 minutes and earn 3 euros or smoke immediately and earn nothing.
Predictably, the sated smokers more readily delay gratification. But they also rated the pleasure of smoking lower than the first time, whereas the cravers rated it higher. The “cool” group gave themselves reasons to wait; the “hot, to indulge.
“If we think of the reason versus passion struggle, we tend to think that cognition serves longterm interests and passion serves immediate gratificationthe angel on one shoulder and the devil on the other, Nordgren said.
“We also think that if you are horny or hungry, your thoughtsthe angelare in the right place, but you give into temptationthe devil.